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strace[1] is a diagnostic, debugging and instructional userspace utility for Linux that allows to trace system calls and signals.

 -c             count time, calls, and errors for each syscall and report summary
strace -c -f -p $PID
% time     seconds  usecs/call     calls    errors syscall
------ ----------- ----------- --------- --------- ----------------
 63.56    0.032899         539        61        13 futex
 17.62    0.009118         217        42           epoll_pwait
 11.48    0.005944         104        57           nanosleep
  3.15    0.001628          11       142           madvise
  1.07    0.000553          79         7           read
  0.87    0.000452          64         7           write
  0.72    0.000374         374         1         1 restart_syscall
  0.59    0.000307          51         6           sched_yield
  0.56    0.000291         145         2           getpid
  0.36    0.000184          92         2           rt_sigreturn
  0.01    0.000007           3         2           tgkill
------ ----------- ----------- --------- --------- ----------------
100.00    0.051757                   329        14 total


strace -help
usage: strace [-CdffhiqrtttTvVwxxy] [-I n] [-e expr]...
              [-a column] [-o file] [-s strsize] [-P path]...
              -p pid... / [-D] [-E var=val]... [-u username] PROG [ARGS]
   or: strace -c[dfw] [-I n] [-e expr]... [-O overhead] [-S sortby]
              -p pid... / [-D] [-E var=val]... [-u username] PROG [ARGS]

Output format:
  -a column      alignment COLUMN for printing syscall results (default 40)
  -i             print instruction pointer at time of syscall
  -k             obtain stack trace between each syscall
  -o file        send trace output to FILE instead of stderr
  -q             suppress messages about attaching, detaching, etc.
  -r             print relative timestamp
  -s strsize     limit length of print strings to STRSIZE chars (default 32)
  -t             print absolute timestamp
  -tt            print absolute timestamp with usecs
  -T             print time spent in each syscall
  -x             print non-ascii strings in hex
  -xx            print all strings in hex
  -X format      set the format for printing of named constants and flags
  -y             print paths associated with file descriptor arguments
  -yy            print protocol specific information associated with socket file descriptors

  -c             count time, calls, and errors for each syscall and report summary
  -C             like -c but also print regular output
  -O overhead    set overhead for tracing syscalls to OVERHEAD usecs
  -S sortby      sort syscall counts by: time, calls, name, nothing (default time)
  -w             summarise syscall latency (default is system time)

  -e expr        a qualifying expression: option=[!]all or option=[!]val1[,val2]...
     options:    trace, abbrev, verbose, raw, signal, read, write, fault, inject, kvm
  -P path        trace accesses to path

  -b execve      detach on execve syscall
  -D             run tracer process as a detached grandchild, not as parent
  -f             follow forks
  -ff            follow forks with output into separate files
  -I interruptible
     1:          no signals are blocked
     2:          fatal signals are blocked while decoding syscall (default)
     3:          fatal signals are always blocked (default if '-o FILE PROG')
     4:          fatal signals and SIGTSTP (^Z) are always blocked
                 (useful to make 'strace -o FILE PROG' not stop on ^Z)

  -E var         remove var from the environment for command
  -E var=val     put var=val in the environment for command
  -p pid         trace process with process id PID, may be repeated
  -u username    run command as username handling setuid and/or setgid

  -d             enable debug output to stderr
  -v             verbose mode: print unabbreviated argv, stat, termios, etc. args
  -h             print help message
  -V             print version


  • Strace ps command:
strace -e open ps
  • strace -p MY_PID_NUMBER

See also[edit]

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