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A VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a dedicated connection to a LAN (Local Area Network) via the internet. When connected via a VPN connection, a Local Area Network is not restricted by the limitations regarding physical cables, and the local network can therefore connect to the internet through a VPN client.

VPNs can be typically characterized as host-to-network or remote access by connecting a single computer to a network or as site-to-site for connecting two networks.

Common tunneling protocols

  • IP in IP (Protocol 4): IP in IPv4/IPv6
  • SIT/IPv6 (Protocol 41): IPv6 in IPv4/IPv6
  • GRE (Protocol 47): Generic Routing Encapsulation
  • OpenVPN (UDP port 1194): Openvpn. It uses a custom security protocol that utilizes SSL/TLS for key exchange.
  • SSTP (TCP port 443): Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol
  • IPSec (Protocol 50 and 51): Internet Protocol Security, IKEv1 and IKEv2 modes). Tunnel and transport modes. UDP packets port 500.
  • L2TP (Protocol 115): Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
  • VXLAN (UDP port 4789): Virtual Extensible Local Area Network.

Cloud services[edit]

PAN-OS: show vpn[edit]

Read: https://docs.paloaltonetworks.com/pan-os/9-0/pan-os-admin/vpns.html

See Also[edit]

  • https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/services/vpn-gateway/