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ls is a command to list files, directories and symbolic links in Linux and Unix-like operating systems include in the coreutils package in Ubuntu.

Linux Examples[edit]

  • ls
  • ll (alias from ls -laF)
    • ll -h
  • ls -l
  • ls -la
  • ls -lh
  • ls -lhaR
  • One line listing with sizes using ls and find: ls -ldh $(find /path/to/search/)
  • Sort by size:
    • ls -lhS
    • ls -lR | grep '^-' | sort -rnk5 (sort will not work if ls is used with -h)
    • Including full path: ls -ld $(find ./) | sort -rnk5 | more
-su: /bin/ls: Argument list too long
-d list directories themselves, not their contents


-F appends symbols to filenames. These symbols show useful information about files.[1]

@ means symbolic link (or that the file has extended attributes).
* means executable.
= means socket.
| means named pipe.
> means door.
/ means directory.

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

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